DANCING IN PLACE

MIGRANT PICKER

Waiting for Work: “Ex-tenant farmer from Texas,

came to work in the fruit and vegetable harvests.”

Coachella Valley, California,

by Dorothea Lange, 1937

Dorothea Lange, as always, was interested in more than the facts of a situation. She wanted intimacy with “the other.” This man, obviously wary, is relaxed enough to put up his foot, a sure sign of trust. The captioning of the photo -hers- speaks volumes. He had had a station in life, even though it was rented. Now he only had his truck, his labor, his -and his family (background in the shadows)- and his footlocker full belongings.

It appears, as well, he still had his dignity.

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RUSSELL LEE: A “PRETTY” MOMENT

RussellLee41

April 1942. “Hollywood, California. Girl on the street.”

Photo by Russell Lee for the Office of War Information (OWI)

What do we know about this photo?

He used a Rollieflex camera (the square negative).

It was downtown L.A.

We know the Admiral theater was still A theater showing first run movies (Casablanca?).

It was a warm day (jacket in hand).

She’d already been traveling (tag on the suitcase).

Lee was doing the original “street photography (no interaction).”

They -he and her- were standing at 1645 Vine Street (http://bit.ly/2aO5FYf).

The Depression was not over but for OWI photographers it was out-of-sight. The new theme was America The Healthy.

Lee appreciated the “pretty” as well as the depraved (and that was consistent. His Depression-era photos all hint at the positive).

Still photography “sticks,” freezes moments in time, forever, and perusing them is better than fine wine: the “taste” can last forever.

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Jack Delano and the Greene County Jail Dance

Greene County Jail, Jack Delano, 1941Georgia, June 1941. Photo by Jack Delano.

Jack Delano, was one  of the group of photographers who fanned out throughout the United States in the 1930’s and 40’s on behalf of the New Deal’s Farm Security Administration (FSA).

Delano was not as well known as the other F.S.A. photographers, who included Dorothea Lange, Walker Evans and Arthur Rothstein, Russell Lee. Mr. Delano created images of people and places of surpassing elegance and empathy. Certain of his beautifully detailed, crisp black-and-white prints show the Evans influence, but his work also had the verve and deep insight of Lange and the technical curiosity and skill of Lee.

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Russell Lee: The Depression to Modernity

Sunday morning on the south side of Chicago by Russell Lee, 1941
Sunday morning on the south side of Chicago by Russell Lee, 1941

Text by Bruce Berman

By the 1940s, Russell Lee, Roy Stryker and the remaining elements of the FSA (Farm Security Administration) had begun to move onto the next great era of America: World War. The Depression was beginning to wane, the result of an uptick in industrial production gearing for war.

For Lee and company that meant a slight shift in message and a growing modernness of style, more mobile because of the use of smaller cameras and the sheer volume of serious photography being done in the “internet of its era,” the new “picture magazine” of Life, Look, Saturday Evening Post, Glamour, Cosmopolitan, Collier’s, etc.

The last stages of FSA saw the focus and imagery of the FSA turn from exposing the depth of wretchedness to reform and reclamation during the Depression to a message of growing prosperity and recovery, a message that supported the idea that America “was back!”

If you are shooting for the Government there is a reason you are on the payroll. Your “boss” wants you to support a message. The message can be benign or insidious but make no mistake, you will deliver the “message” or you will be freelancing.

No image better personifies this message than Lee’s 1941 image of five African-American boys, outfitted in their finest, posing proudly for Lee’s Rollieflex (the irony of the “Rollie” being a German camera made in Lower Saxony was probably not lost on photographers of the war). In fact, the Rollie and the Leica were the two new technological “stars” coming into use during the war, both using roll film, faster to operate than previous cameras, especially because the speeds of film had also inceased to a whopping ASA of 125. Both were German manufactured. However, the main work horse for most press photographers -especially the military Signal Corps shooters- was the Speed Graphic, big (it took a 4″ X 5″ sheet of film, one sheet at a time), cumbersome and slow to use, but American made.

The Rolleiflex TLR (Twin Lens Reflex) camera
The Rolleiflex TLR (Twin Lens Reflex) camera

Even while we fought the war the era of imports (specifically from Germany and Japan) had begun. The full deluge couldn’t and didn’t happen until the war was over and the conquered Axis countries were occupied and their manufacturing bases had begun to produce again, this time, fully modernized and aimed at export to, mainly -insert irony- the United States.

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LANGE’S SHORT STORY CAPTIONS

From Texas tenant farmer to California fruit tramp. Marysville, Calif. His story: 1927 made 7,000 dollars in cotton. 1928 broke even. 1929 went in the hole. 1930 went in still deeper. 1931 lost everything. 1932 hit the road. by Dorothea Lange, 1936. Another photo of this family is below
From Texas tenant farmer to California fruit tramp. Marysville, Calif. His story: 1927 made 7,000 dollars in cotton. 1928 broke even. 1929 went in the hole. 1930 went in still deeper. 1931 lost everything. 1932 hit the road. Photograph by Dorothea Lange. 1936

Text by Bruce Berman

Dorothea Lange not only photographed the people who were suffering the disaster of the Depression, she got to know them.

Her captions, written and sent to Roy Stryker at the FSA (either with her undeveloped film -which was rare- or with her developed film (she was the only FSA shooter allowed to do so) often were mini Short Stories.

In the photograph above, for example, in 39 words Lange hits four of the five “5Ws and the H” that are the staple of good journalistic writing. The “How” is obvious: California by car.

Lange’s intimacy was a keystone of her work. The relaxed body language of the migrant father, the careful posing of six people (never easy and especially so with young children), the near “offering” of the baby to the photographer, a metaphorical gesture that Lange was undoubtedly aware of, all indicate a more than momentary photo shoot. She was engaged and she, like any good photographer, was dropping the barrier between subjects and “official person.” Her work indicated familiarity and, to a degree, intimacy.

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